The Celtis laevigata in central Texas is quite different from the variety laevigata that we have in North Carolina. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. I… It is used mostly for unexposed parts of furniture. The bark of the hackberry has corky projections and is often called "warty". Rich bottomlands, stream banks, flood plains, alluvial woods, in sandy loam, and thickets. C. Laevigata also has two recognized varieties. Bark of a medium-sized tree. It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen in October. Animal Use. The Hackberry tree (Celtis occidentalis) is one of the most unique trees native to North America, but you may not have heard of the Hackberry tree because it goes by many different names.If you would like to know everything that can be known about this tree you have come to the right place. anomala ... Bark light gray, smooth or covered with corky warts. Three species of butterflies feed on the leaves as larvae: Hackberry Emperor, Tawny Emperor, and American Snout. Virginia Tech Dendrology, Recommended Tree, Shrub, and Woody Vine Identification Guides. Young trees have smooth, light-gray bark that develops knobby “warts” as the tree ages. Trunk bark is gray to brownish gray, forming warty irregular ridges. Petrides, George A. The common name “hackberry” is a reference to the peeling bark of mature trees, which from a distance gives the appearance of having been chopped or “hacked” with an axe. Wind pollinated. Intermediate trees, which may be hybrids, are not rare, which may explain why these species were formerly lumped as varieties of C. occidentalis. Branhagen, Alan. sugarberry, sugar hackberry, hackberry, texas sugarberry, palo blanco. It is found in the southeastern United States from southeastern Virginia to southern Florida (including the Florida Keys) and west to southwestern Texas. The grey-brown to silvery bark has some warty projections or corky ridges, making it attractive in wintertime. Celtis laevigata (Sugarberry) - Sugarberry or Southern Hackberry is a large tree, to 30 m. in height; the bark is light gray and from slightly to prominently covered with corky warts. texana Sargent, or Netleaf Sugarberry, Celtis laevigata var. Pests The most common insect on Hackberry causes the Hackberry nipple gall. Leaves are oblong-lanceolate, sometimes ovate, 5-10 cm. texana Sargent, or Netleaf Sugarberry, Celtis laevigata var. Celtis laevigata is referred to as “palo blanco” (“white stick”) in Spanish and has many common English names. Sole larval host plant for American snout (Libytheana carineta) in South Florida; also larval host for tawny emperor (Asterocampa clyton), question mark (Polygonia interrogationis) butterflies. Large tree in winter (same tree as in photo above). Hackberry may recover from transplanting from a field nursery slowly due to the 5). The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Bees. The leaf bases of the other species are often cordate, while those of C. laevigata are usually cuneate or rounded. In the North and Midwest, the native Celtis occidentalis is used in place of Celtis laevigata. Larval host for hackberry emperor (Asterocampa celtis), and mourning cloak (Nymphalis antiopa) butterflies. Small amounts are used for dimension stock, veneer, and containers, but the main use of sugarberry wood is for furniture. More, David. Use virtual and real tools to improve critical calculations for farms and ranches. Netleaf hackberry (Celtis laevigata var. Animals that eat its fruit: White-winged dove, Bobwhite quail, Gambel quail, Chestnut-bellied scaled quail, Wild turkey, Eastern bluebird, Cardinal, Catbird, Common crow, Fish crow, Yellow-shafted flicker, Mockingbird, Phoebe, Robin , Red-naped sapsucker (sap), Yellow-bellied sapsucker, Brown thrasher, Hermit thrush, Tufted titmouse, Towhee, Golden-fronted woodpecker, Beaver (wood), Ring-tailed cat, Opossum, Raccoon, Hog-nosed skunk, Striped skunk, Flying squirrel, Attwater's's wood rat. It may occur in pure stands but usually occurs as an occasional tree in association with many other hardwood species, primarily sweetgum, pecan, green ash, elms, overcup oak, water oak, and honeylocust. It will grow on almost any type of soil as long as it has fair drainage. More typical C. laevigata leaves, covered with galls as they often are. Menard, TX 4/24/2011. It is … Celtis occidentalis, or Hackberry, is a deciduous tree, native to North Carolina, that commonly grows to 30 to 40 feet in height and 1 to 2 feet in diameter, but on the best sites, may reach a height of 130 feet and a diameter of 4 feet or more.It has a straight central trunk and an ovoid crown with a cylindrical shape once mature. It grows in sandy loam or alluvial soils along streams, and in moist woodlands, palm groves and thickets throughout Louisiana and east Texas. Can also be confused with planertree (Planera aquatica) which has similar leaves but bark that is is reddish brown and flaky, never warty. Propagation is by seed. Open-grown sugarberry commonly reaches 50 to 70 feet in height wi… Sugarberry, palo blanco Celtis laevigata var. Laevigata means smooth, and most of the sugarberry’s bark is smooth but … Six native Celtis species occur across the range of the flatheaded hackberry borer, and all are potential hosts, with sugarberry (C. laevigata) and hackberry (C. occidentalis) being the most widespread species in the eastern US. The light-colored wood can be given a light- to medium-brown finish that in other woods must be achieved by bleaching. Grows very well, even … smallii: Celtis smallii Beadle NRCS PLANT CODE: CELA ... Squirrels occasionally eat the fruit, and will also consume buds and bark, but do so rarely. The tree has distinctive warty, gray bark, sometimes turning tan in very old individuals. Its leaves have asymmetrical bases and partially toothed margin. Two species of hackberry are commonly found in Tennessee: southern hackberry or sugarberry (Celtis laevigata), and northern hackberry (Celtis occidentalis). (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); All photographs and text ©2013 by Will Cook unless otherwise noted. Agriculture weed management resources. The fruit of all hackberries are edible and palatable (Medsger 1966). NC State fact sheet The fruit temporarily stains walks. This very large, broad, fast growing deciduous North American native tree has a rounded vase crown with spreading, pendulous branches. made from the bark to treat sore throats and a decoction made from the bark and ground up shells to treat venereal disease. The following information is for genus Celtis: The fruits are greatly enjoyed by birds. Weed Management. Celtis laevigata . Leaves are wider than Celtis laevigata and more serrated. Other game and nongame animals consume the fruit. The medium-textured, light green leaves turn bright yellow in fall and can be showy in some years. The similar Common Hackberry (C. occidentalis) and Dwarf Hackberry (C. tenuifolia) also occur in North Carolina, but are less common. More information: brevipes sugarberry Celtis laevigata var. With age, the bark becomes increasingly scaly and rough-textured. Has a full crown with dense foliage, well-balanced, fine-textured, with small, glossy green leaves that reliably turn bright yellow in the fall. Menard, TX 4/24/2011. (1987) p 55 Parts Shown: Fruit, Bark, Leaf Art. Trees of Alabama and the Southeast Leaves are 3x longer than broad. Celtis laevigata. Celtis occidentalis, commonly known as the common hackberry, is a large deciduous tree native to North America. This texture is generally on the trunk and branches. Powdery mildew and leaf spot may occur. The bark is mostly smooth and gray, with small bumps or warts on the older stems. It is also known as the nettletree, sugarberry, beaverwood, northern hackberry, and American hackberry. It ranges from Florida to Texas, north to Virginia, Illinois, Missouri, Kansas, and Oklahoma. Leaves: petiole 6-10 mm. Celtis laevigata (Laura Plantation, LA) sugarberry This is a medium-sized deciduous tree to about fifty feet tall. It has smooth gray bark that may become somewhat corky with age. Sugarberry is a common large overstory tree of bottomland forests, but also occurs in drier areas over calcareous rock (with relatively high pH soil). Celtis laevigata can be pruned and kept at shrub size by cutting them to the ground every 2-3 years. Technology in Agriculture. It is hardy to zone (UK) 5. The wood is also used to produce sporting goods and plywood. easily (Fig. reticulata (Torrey) L.D. Its leaves were smooth above, but appear intermediate between C. laevigata and C. occidentalis. Sugar Hackberry grows across the eastern two thirds of Texas, the only hackberry that occurs in all ten vegetational areas of the state. Native Habitats: Branch bark is gray and relatively smooth, while twigs are green to dark reddish gray and smooth. Row Crops. 1814. Very smooth, gray, beech-like bark. Celtis laevigata var. For Celtis laevigata var. Benson. The leaves are normally easily identified by their elongate, almost triangular shape with uneven bases with three prominent veins and usually few teeth. sugarberry, sugar hackberry, hackberry, texas sugarberry, palo blanco ... Can also be confused with planertree (Planera aquatica) which has similar leaves but bark that is is reddish brown and flaky, never warty. Celtis Laevigata is a deciduous Tree growing to 18 m (59ft 1in) at a medium rate. A medium sized tree with smooth gray bark having corky warts. Ulmaceae. Commercial row crop production in Arkansas. Celtis occidentalis has an alternate branching pattern. The fruits are drupes, with a large seed encased in a hardened endocarp and surrounded by fleshy mesocarp. However, hackberry bark nearly always few to many corky lumps scattered throughout the smooth bark, which is rarely the case with beech. It reaches a mature size 50 feet tall and 50 feet wide. The leaves have asymmetrical bases, are tapered with sharply pointed tips, and smooth or toothed margins. Branches without thorns, often pendulous, young branches pubescent at first, then glabrous. The wood is not strong, and quite coarse-grained. Plant Citations. Sugarberry is one of the earlier tree species to leaf out. Pl. This species is also found in the northeastern areas of Mexico. reticulata) has leaves 2" long or less, with raised veins underneath that form a net-like appearance, occurring in West Texas; Lindheimer's hackberry (C. lindheimeri) has grayish-green leaves and only occurs in Central Texas. Native Introduced Native and Introduced. The trees have strong tap roots and many shallow, spreading roots. The Comanche would beat the fruits of ... Celtis laevigata, sugarberry, Texas sugarberry, sugar hackberry, hackberry, palo blanco, southern hackberry, lowland hackberry Created Date: It is a moderately long-lived hardwood with a light-colored wood, yellowish gray to light brown with yellow streaks.. Sugarberry mixed with hackberry supplies the lumber known as hackberry. Native Plants of the Midwest. These are either Texas Sugarberry, Celtis laevigata var. (2016) p 98 Parts Shown: Bark Photo. Animals that eat its twigs and foliage: White-tailed deer (Martin 1951). The Trees of North America. Trees, to 30 m; trunks to 1 m diam., crowns broad, spreading.Bark light gray, smooth or covered with corky warts.Branches without thorns, often pendulous, young branches pubescent at first, then glabrous.Leaves: petiole 6-10 mm. Benson. The leaves of hackberry have a … Although this native of the southeastern U.S. thrives in the wild along stream banks and river flood plains, it adapts well to dry conditions. (2002) p 416 Parts Shown: Fruit, Leaf Art. It is not planted widely in our area but it is an attractive shade tree. The sugarberry grows on stream banks, river bottoms, and moist alluvial flats of clay and silt loam. ... Mitchell, Alan. The wood has a characteristic yellowish white color. Phonetic Spelling SEL-tis ock-sih-den-TAH-liss Description. The bark is far less warty than Celtis occidentalis. Celtis laevigata 'All Seasons' // All Seasons Sugarberry, Hackberry Tree. Celtis laevigata. reticulata (Torrey) L.D. This could be a defense that evolved to protect the trunks from deer that like to rub their antlers against the bark. On one of these trips we wandered over to the old quad ("The Horseshoe") here at USC, and studied this tree species — sugarberry, hackberry, Celtis laevigata. The mature bark is light gray, rough and corky and the small fruit turns from orange red to purple and is relished by birds. Ripening fruits. 1). Leaves have a longer, slenderer tip than Celtis occidentalis. These have broader, coarsely toothed leaves that are usually sandpapery above. The Plants Database includes the following 5 subspecies of Celtis laevigata . Trees, Shrubs, and Woody Vines of North Carolina, Plantae>Magnoliophyta>Magnoliopsida>Rosales>Cannabaceae>Celtis laevigata Willdenow. The Acadian French name for hackberry is "bois connu", or "known tree". Somewhat similar in overall appearance, it is a smaller tree (to 60 feet) with a more warty bark and smaller, sandpapery leaves than Celtis laevigata. The sugar hackberry genus name, Celtis, is the Greek name for a tree bearing sweet fruit. Celtis laevigata Willdenow, Enum. suppl: 67. The Celtis laevigata in central Texas is quite different from the variety laevigata that we have in North Carolina. It can be distinguished from C. occidentalis (a more northerly species) by leaves which are dark green above and yellowish-green below, usually serrated, and by having its style retained on young and mature fruit, while the leaves of C. occidentalis are yellowish green on both surfaces, with few teeth near the tip or none, and its style is not retained on the fruit. There is no terminal bud and the branches usually are formed in a zigzag pattern. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Trees. Scales of various types may be found on Hackberry. It is usually found in poorly drained clay, silty clay or occasionally loamy flats but not in permanent swamps. These are either Texas Sugarberry, Celtis laevigata var. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for subspecies profiles. These trees grow quite tall, 60 to 80 feet. Insects, Diseases, or Other Plant Problems: Hackberry nipple gall is common and while it disfigures the leaves it does not hurt these trees. The fruits are edible and sweetish — the taste is similar to that of dates — but the stone is large and covered by only a thin layer of flesh. This individual could be a hybrid. Celtis laevigata. Menard, TX 4/24/2011. The sugar hackberry or sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) is a very common tree species at Brackenridge Field Lab. An extreme example of wartiness! Celtis is the ancient Greek name for a lotus with sweet berries, and was used by Pliny. The most common Celtis species in our area is the Sugarberry, C. laevigata.