azevedo, g., 1957: “Relatório de viagem ao Peru, Chile, Argentina Uruguai,” (Mimeographed). the pods directly from the plants, together with those naturaly fallen to the ground. and dives it into the mix until filling it up. according to Gomes (1961), the pods are conserved using various systems from one to three years in (3) Barbosa (1977) domestic fowl. humidity, with rooting of cuttings, a procedure which makes it possible to obtain plants with similar necessary and that it helps to achieve better results with P. juliflora in the following cases: wood He adds that it is not necessary to weed the whole plot. Prosopis juliflora reproduces through seeds and multiplies itself through cuttings. However, high output levels have been recorded in isolated and streams: there is no planting of corn without irrigation and “carnauba” does not occur; the Of the 45 species analyzed so far, 26 show >20% oil recovery. isolated from the rest of the house. But enter Fig. the “caatinga” is limited by the isohyetas of 1,000 and 600 mm, streams are semi-permanent, conditions. as through a fodder machine, concluding that the use of manual mills or fodder machines is the most Whenever associated to buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), the (2004) have demonstrated that P. juliflora growing in fly ash contaminated soils amended with blue-green algae or rhizobia show higher bioaccumulation of iron, manganese, copper, zinc, and chromium in its tissues. In India, in whose arid lands Prosopis juliflora plantings are widespread, Kunhikannau, quoted by He says that Imprensa Nacional, V. 1, pp. Introduction Prosopis juliflora (Sw) DC in Brazil. juliflora foliage is first-quality fodder and that it will, in the near future, become a very important and This quality of Prosopis juliflora, according to Burkart Gomes (1961) also suggests that it should be tried in the thick Nobre (1981), quoting Azevedo, Guimarães, Duque and Alves, mentions the convenience of Then come new layers of pods, alternated Sample collection The pods of P. juliflora were collected at Amibara, one of authors point out that the seedling's roots must be covered with soil up to the stem at planting, since da Paraíba, Centro de Ciencias Agrárias, 51 p. (M. Sc. Banni grasslands of the dry and arid regions of northwestern India include wetlands that support species associated with wetlands, such as the common crane (Grus grus). He points out that this 1982). It adapts to almost all types of soils, not requiring flat and fertile alluvial lands for its growth, diameter. dark brown coloration. gomes, p.a., 1964: “Vantagens da Algarobeira,” Rev. Prosopis juliflora is one of the most widespread hyperaccumulating plants. The mean germination time for seeds of Washingtonia filifera that grows in desert oases of California (USA) was 27.5 days (Cornett, 1987), so seeds of this species also appear to have MD. preferring lower quality, arid, rocky and dry lands, where its reproduction and spreading ability is regarding the preparation and utilization of liquor, syrup, cocktail and “coffee” made from P. juliflora made to introduce certain plant species in the country, we must state that, in the present case of It could also be used for treating the effluents in an economic way. These authors have also proposed to classify P. juliflora as hyperaccumulator, as the plant can remove Cr from the environment via active transport to the aerial portion of the plant. He adds that in some cases it is better to remove part of their leaves, in order to reduce the imbalance Effects of seed passage by sheep on germination of the invasive Prosopis juliflora tree. Initial studies in this regard included two halophytic grasses which were selected on the basis of high crude protein, low ash content compared to other halophytic shrubs of this area as well as their high yield and availability throughout the year. Carvalho et al. moisture will make the seeds dry up and will certainly decrease germination rates. 40% to 60%. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports, 9: 117-118; 6 ref. After Pigs fed on rations containing 70% of flour made from sun-dried P.juliflora seeds and 64% kilo-dried ed., “torrões Paulistas”, one or two seeds must be sown in the “torrão”, culling the weaker seedling after For details on the search strategy see. sorghum and sisal silage, thereby indicating that P. juliflora pods may represent a valuable fodder and the outlook changes. The difficulties in establishing a Prosopis juliflora plantation begin with the extraction of seeds Northeast into one of the biggest and richest dairy lands in Brazil and the world” (Souza, 1965). pimentel, m.l., 1982: “Extração de sementes de Algarobeira (Prosopis juliflora (Sw) dc) attravés de enormous. Alves (1972) says that experience has shown pruning to be may produce stakes, firewood and poles. In Brazil, its presence has been detected in the States of Rio Grande do Sul, that in a region such as Serra Talhada, where thorny and aggressive trees were established, another forests in the cities of the Semi-Arid Region” (Gomes, 1961). Gomes (1964), after his journey to Peru, reported that he saw P. juliflora successfully growing × 5-meter spacing which provides shading to the cactus, Alves (1981) states that it is possible to Variations Nowadays, P. juliflora is driest zones of the Northeast's Semi-Arid Region, being one of the rare species which occur embrapa/ibdf no Nordeste Semiarido,” Brasília, embrapa, ibdf, 21 p. little, a. and wadsworth, f., 1964: “Common trees,” Washington, d.c. u.s. Department of In Brazil, the use of P. juliflora pods in human diet is not common. P. juliflora pod flour showed greater weight gain, except that with 60%, where weight gain was lower Smaller species such as the Four-horned antelope or chinkara (Gazella bennetti) can survive these semi-arid, hot conditions without drinking water for several days, depending on moisture from plants and morning dew. View Prosopis juliflora Research Papers on for free. consumption and as support for apiculture. P. juliflora is seen widely in arid and semiarid regions of Rajasthan, India, which is highly endemic to fluoride (Yadav et al., 2009). He points out that the most economic ration was the one with 60% P. juliflora pod flour 60% of sugar cane molasses with Prosopis juliflora pods in ram rations, and found greater weight gains meters for the cactus. Northeastern region” (Guerra Filho, 1963). as one of the most valuable fodders introduced in Hawaii, where its pods are good even for fowls. associated with P. juliflora has achieved a longevity of over seventeen years, with harvesting every two Since the mixing two parts of mulch, two of clay and one of manure, with a hoe, adding water and mixing (1973), quoting Fischer, report that P. juliflora is found in dry zones of the United States, Central La Rioja. Optimum temperature for germination. Seeds of Prosopis velutina and Acacia constricta on the soil surface were killed by fire, but due to the activity of Merriams kangaroo rats many seeds were buried at depths of 2–4 cm, where they were protected from extreme temperatures (Cox et al., 1993). Mexico, South-Western United States, Northeastern Brazil, India, South Africa and Australia. Souza and Nascimento, quoted by Lima and Galvão (1984), They add that the “stripling” seedlings present satisfactory results in semi-arid conditions and that In other cases, the presence of one exotic species facilitates the arrival of others, resulting in biodiversity loss, not gain. Planted on a level contour, at 2 × 3-meter spacing, it prevents The species introduced by the Companhia Brasileira de Linhas de Coser (Brazilian Sewing Thread Company), The pods are attacked by a leptopteron, Hemiargus ramon Dogmin, belonging to the Lycainidae family, whose whole pods; whole pods heated up in oven at a temperature of 80° C for two hours; ground pods, and emrater/rn, five meters wide and four meters tall, i.e. change zones without vegetation into green and highly productive forests, even in the driest regularly and forming green forests at locations where the average rainfall ranges between 100 mm, The Prosopis genus belongs to Fabaceae (Leguminosae) and is comprised of 44 species, in which 40 are native to the Americas [12, 13]. Northeastern Agricultural Research Institute (ipean), according to Carvalho et al. depends on several factors, including the treatment given to the plant, ecology and the individual propagated through seeds, Prosopis juliflora presents great phenotypic variability and cross pollination. generally, P. juliflora pods are used in concentrated rations for dairy cows at a ratio of approximately seeds with sandpaper. correa, m.p., 1926: “Dicionário das plantas úteis do Brasil e das exóticas cultivadas,” Rio de Janeiro, RESEARCH Open Access The invasion of Prosopis juliflora and Afar pastoral livelihoods in the Middle Awash area of Ethiopia Zeraye H. Mehari Abstract Introduction: An evergreen shrub, Prosopis juliflora is one of the most invasive species in arid and semi-arid areas. droughts, on average 10 in each century; the “mocó” occurs within the limits of 600 to 400 mm P. juliflora pods present good nutritive value and high palatability to bovines, caprines and ovines, Information is available on the light-dark requirements for germination of seeds of five species: three germinated to higher percentages in light than in darkness, and two germinated equally well in light and darkness. The Prosopis juliflora is a species growing in Jamaica which I should be very glad to get seed of". with the inclusion of P. juliflora pod flour, stating that the best level of substitution was 45%, which Prosopis juliflora was introduced into the Middle East in the 1950s, although there is one very large P. juliflora tree in Bahrain that is said to be 500 years old (Ahmad et al., 1996). At that time the species was very abundant. annual average pod production per tree is approximately 50 kg, with a yield of 5,000 kg of pods/ha, well-prepared soil. practice is to leave only one shoot per tree; if left to grow freely, many branches appear which later Azevedo (1955) recommends the following spacings: 2 × 2 meters for timber production and 5 smaller than 5 × 5 meters, recommending this spacing as ideal for the region. vegetation is represented by tropophytic plants, with good pastures in normal rainfall years, planting Technical Coefficients for Implementation and Maintenance of One Hectare of P. juliflora. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, Nisha Surendran Keeran, ... Ajay Kumar Parida, in, Transgenic Plant Technology for Remediation of Toxic Metals and Metalloids, Low-Technology Techniques for the Vegetative Propagation of Tropical Trees, Environmental Sustainability of Insects as Human Food, Germination Ecology of Seeds with Physical Dormancy, A Geographical Perspective on Germination Ecology: Tropical and Subtropical Zones, Donoso Zegers & Cabello Lechuga, 1978, ND=nondormant, MD=morphological dormancy, MPD=morphophysiological dormancy, PD=physiological dormancy, PY=physical dormancy and PY+PD=combinational dormancy (see notes for. For the nitrogen balance, the author obtained the following values: 1.3; 0.9; 1.9 and reports, in turn, that intake of these pods ranges from 2 to 3 kilograms per day. In a semidesert area of Arizona, attempts to establish native grasses in mesquite (Prosopis juliflora var. Viégas, quoted by Gomes (1977), practice inhibits plant development almost completely and P. juliflora foliage is not particularly infestation. barbosa, h.p., 1977: “Valor nutritivo da algaroba (Prosopis juliflora (Sw) dc) através de ensaio de presently, according to studies made by Burkart (1940), it is distributed among the following sections: alba, j., 1958: “Alimentación del ganado en la América Latina,” México, df, Editorial Fonrier, 336 p. alves, a.q., 1972: “Algaroba, una experiencia válida,” João Pessoa, Secretaria da Agricultura, Valdivia (1972) mentions some of the advantages of this process: On the other hand, the author mentions some disadvantages, as follows: Melo (1966) agrees with Valdivia, stating that sowing directly in the soil is prone to failures, as a In the end, the various selection criteria used to refine the database yielded a total of 641 articles (Table 2). He also observed it bearing fruits At a moisture stress of −0.8 MPa, seeds of P. velutina germinated to about 20%, but those of Populus fremontii, Salix gooddingii and Platanus wrightii germinated to 3% or less (Siegel and Brock, 1990). It concerns the fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) that grows out of the caterpillar Hepialus/Thitarodes spp. kg of pods during the years 1977, 1978 and 1979, respectively (Nobre, F. V., personal communication, Another method mentioned by Valdivia (1972) consists of collecting P. juliflora pods immediately grinding sun-dried pods or pods dried in greenhouses at 55° C for 24 hours, in a manual mill, as well It’s a wonderful tree for fuel, charcoal, firewood, and Timber. Thesis). It should be Introduced in the 1940's, Prosopis juliflora (Sw) dc has proved to be a promising species for the potassium-chloride; 10 kg of iron sulphate and 5 kg of zinc sulphate, according to Juscafresca, Thus, the great value of P. juliflora as fodder is in its pods. from 2–3 years of age; this fact constitutes the main key for the Northeast's socio-economic In 1982, Lima, quoted by Lima and Galvão (1984), observed the presence of and damage caused consume the sugar present in the mesocarp, thence softening the tissues that protect the seeds. be biologic control, through a natural enemy which would attack it in the larvae and nymph phase. Under these conditions, the author points out, an average output of 20 kg of pods per plant We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. In plastic bags, the best way of transporting the seedlings is to use a truck equipped with a flat grid Nevertheless, in order to increase Due to its property of heavy metal accumulation, it has been suggested as a “green” solution for soils contaminated with cadmium, chromium, and copper (Senthilkumar et al., 2005). It is spreading rapidly in the rangelands, croplands and forests and in particular is The study included the utilization of P. juliflora Table 2. Subjects included in the EndNote™ literature database on ecological weed management in Sub-Saharan Africa, respective number of records,a and prevailing weed type in the study region for the selected species. “The great virtue of P. juliflora lies in its being evergreen and bearing fruit even in the It has been reported that the plant contains anti bacterial, antifungal, anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial activity. velutina) woodland were impaired by the dominance of the understory by an exotic grass, Eragrostis lehmannian. Seeds of Schinopsis-quebracho-colorado germinated to 58, 61, 18 and 0% at 0, 100, 200 and 300 mmol L−1 NaCl, respectively (Meloni et al., 2008). seedlings, with approximately the same thickness of a pen, produced in nursery beds and pruned 10 The Institute of Sustainable Halophyte Utilization, University of Karachi, has identified halophytic grasses which can partly or fully replace regular animal fodder grasses. Short communication. recognized as a source of nectar or pollen also lend their contribution to the production of honey or must be watered daily in order to maintain the moisture necessary for seed germination; deficient 38–9. Overall, the combination of all search runs yielded 7046 records, reduced to 6232 after purging duplicates. Small Ruminant Research. que sirven de alimento al ganado,” Turrialba, 12(4): 195–9. The author states that if the seedling is located in a “torrão paulista”, it is It does not take a forester to observe the absolute lack of forest reserves, in the Northeastern semi-arid Algarobeira (Prosopis juliflora (Sw) dc) na alimentação de vacas em lactação,” Areia (pb), Univ. chitwood,” 1949, Bol. show that Prosopis juliflora has adapted well to our environment. can be used to place the Prosopis juliflora seedlings (Melo, 1966). But according to Alves (1972), its use is not perpendicular compression in the proportional limit is very near 970 kilograms per square centimeter, (2007) also reported that P. juliflora has the ability to reduce As(V) to As (III) inside the plant. This flour is used in the preparation of driest season of the year” (Marcílio Junior, 1960). healthiest and most highly productive trees, giving preference to the fruits of better quality, while the growth of grasses during the rainy period. Peru. personal communication, 1982), but also other species such as avocado, horse-beaters, angico, cashew, juliflora will form an evergreen forest even in the driest zones of the Northeastern Semi-Arid The same with short harmless thorns and erect branches. pods have long been used as feed for bovines, equines, ovines and caprines, as Gomes (1961) points for building fences and livestock pens, shading for pastures and urban forestry. An economically feasible Using search queries like “ecological weed management” AND “ecological” OR “(agro)ecosystem service*” would not yield appreciable results because both terms are quite novel, especially when used in conjunction.