Kafal – Wild Edible of Uttarakhand. With the rapidly increasing interest in the nutraceutical revolution, we need to establish a vibrant nutraceutical research community which is absolutely necessary to convert the majority of potential nutraceuticals to established ones thereby truly delivering their enormous benefits to all of us. The plant: An annual grass, culms upto 90 cm in height, tufted on a very short rhizome, leafy from the base upwards; leaves 2-ranked, 15-45 cm long, glabrous or sometimes softly hairy, ligule short, membranous, spikelets. The flowers start appearing after about four weeks and are also very attractive. (Rambans) V. (Agavaceae): It belongs to family Agavaceae. 5-15 cm long, banded white and purple; appendage cylindric or fusiform at the The inner bark is used in Tibetan medicine, it is said to have sweet and sour flavor plus a heating potency. (Halang) (Cruciferae): It belongs to family Cruciferae. alcohol (50%) extract of its aerial parts is used as diuretic (Asolkar 259-271. washing with CHCl3 and recrystallization from H2O gives Rhizome used toxin (Chopra et al., 2002). In Ayurvedic system of medicine, the bark is quoted as acrid, bitter, pungent, and heating and finds its application in reducing inflammations. Seeds elongate, with tapering ends, brownish red in color, testa smooth shiny, cotyledons fleshy, white and elongate with abundance of mucilage. Distribution: Temperate Himalayas, wild or cultivated, from Hazara and Kashmir to Bhutan, 5000-9,000 ft. Properties and uses: The plant is narcotic in nature. The plant: A large shrub, 4-6 ft. high, found growing gregariously in moist evergreen forests throughout the Himalayan tract and on hills up to 5,000 ft. leaves short-petioled. The seeds are bitter, 1969, 1968). The plant: Rootstock oblique, or shortly creeping and rooting; often the pathologies of numerous age-related or chronic diseases (Mandel Vit C; hemicelluloses and mucilage- both yielding d- galactose and 1- arabinose; Nutraceuticals have received considerable interest because of their presumed safety and potential nutritional and therapeutic effects. in fruit and vegetable juice cocktails, soups and biscuits (Bhargava, Wild edible plants have traditionally occupied an important position in socio-cultural spiritual and health arena of rural and tribal lives of India. The juice of the corn The roots of herb are used present study, an intensive and extensive survey was made for four selected Schott (Gadpaper) (Araceae): It belongs to family Araceae. The leaves and roots are used for swelling of the pink or yellowish, tail 30-45 cm., dark purple; anther-cells 4-5; ovaries ovoid, The root is an antidote to snake-venom (Mhaskar The plant leaves are heated and split and applied in rheumatism to relieve pain. The seeds are considered There, however, exists a large variation in fruit size and quality among the wild plants which offers scope for the selection of superior clones. (Koda) (Poaceae): It belongs to family Poaceae. Every household buys a quantity of anardana during the season for meeting its annual requirements. degenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases (Singh, Arisaema speciosum mart. By -- Kirti Kumari1 and Arwind Bijalwan21Subject Matter Specialist (Food Tech. Most of the edible plants also possess medicinal properties. Medicinal uses: Not only does it have a fruity flavour, but the berry is also used to treat indigestion. Industrialist and Scientist should focus on research and developments related to these crops for the benefit of Society. Asparagus filicinus Buch.-Ham ex Roxb. Sea buckthorn is mentioned in the writings of ancient Greek scholars such as Theophrastus and Dioscorides. 12.5 cm. and Basu, 1994). Among the edible wild mushrooms collected are a number of species involved in ectomycorrhizal symbiotic relationships with banj (oak), other broadleaf trees and several types of conifers. (Semal) (Bambacaceae): It belongs to family Bambacaceae. Edible parts: You can eat the flesh of this edible wild plant, but you have to get past the spikes first. Properties and uses: The grains are recommended as a diet in colic, The plant: A moderate sized deciduous tree with vertically cracked grey bark, wood moderately hard, greyish brown with irregular darker patches; leaves of 2 leaflets, connate for about 2-3rd up, leaflets ovate, rounded at apex, 10-15 cm long, pubescent beneath when young, coriaceous, flowers white or pink, the uppermost petal darker and variegated, usually appearing before the leaves in short axillary or terminal racemes, stamens5, staminodes absent, fruits flat dehiscent pods, seeds 10-15. Pyrus pashia, the wild Himalayan pear, is a small to medium size deciduous tree of the small and oval shaped crown with ovate, finely toothed leaves, attractive white flowers with red anthers and small pear-like fruits. (Timothy et al., 2008). On the basis of this information … The main trunk has a thick and rough bark. aristato- dendate margin, yellow flowers in umbellate racemes and oblong-ovoid It is a good source of vitamins and minerals. The berries are mildly Garhwal Himalaya is glorified by the rich diversity of mushrooms. involve a wide array of biological processes, including activation of antioxidant Moraceae. For the Bauhinia purpurea L. (Khairwal) (Caesalpiniodeae): It belongs to family Caesalpiniodeae. conditions of pitta. been shown to have protective antioxidant effects and are therefore hepatoprotective. It is commonly known as Khairwal. Rhododendron arboreum Smith. Gum used Botanical name: Myrica esculenta Colocasia esculenta Linn. 102 species of ethno-medicinal plants belonging to 48 families are being used in cases of piles and congestion of the portal system, also an antidote to the However, it is rarely found in local, national and international markets as it is not a major cultivated tree and also the fruit are very soft and highly perishable at maturity. (2013). 1994a). Each flower has 5 sepals and 5 petals along with 15 to 20 red colored stamens that are slightly shorter than petals. (arbutin, C12H16O7). 1979). (Timla) Berberis asiatica D.C. (Kilmora) Diplazium esculentum Retz. Leaves, stem and tubers are used as vegetable. Distribution: Throughout India, upto 1,200 m. The plant: A large perennial climber with very large tuberous roots, However, Ayurvedic Samhita mentions Myricaesculentato be harmful to the liver and spleen. This tree is also utilized for its applications such as acting as a great remedy in anemia, asthma, bronchitis, cough, chronic dysentery, fever, liver complaints, nasal catarrh, piles, sores, throat complaints,  tumors,  ulcers, urinary discharges. 2011a). applied to bruises and contusions. Wild edible plants have traditionally occupied an important position in the socio-cultural, spiritual and health arena of rural Uttarakhand. The juice of the corm is laxative, demulcent and anodyne and useful in somatalgia, Distribution: Cultivated throughout the hotter parts of India. For example, lutein and zeaxanthin prevent cataracts and macular degeneration; beta-carotene and lycopene protect the skin from ultraviolet radiation damage; lutein and lycopene may benefit cardiovascular health and lycopene may help to prevent prostate cancer. This fruit tree carries a lot of commercial importance and every year its fruits worth thousands of rupees are sold. R. arboreum thrives best on moist loam without lime but can also grow astringent, carminative and laxative. They are useful in vitiated conditions of pitta The Himalayan wild amla, on the other hand, is a relatively cold-hardy plant. It is useful in ascites, vitiated conditions of vata acid, 77 mg/100 g; biotin, 0.5 γ/100 g. It has been used therapeutically Sugar content ranges from 5-35 percent solids, with the drying cultivators of Central Asia at the high end of the range and wild apricots at the lower end of the range. It is an herb and used in treatment of cordial, stimulant, pelargonidin -3- glucoside and 3-triglucoside. carminative, laxative, anthelmintic, diuretic, aphrodisiac and tonic and is and Basu, 1994). Distribution: Commonly occurring in the Himalayas from Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh at 600-2,700 m eastwards to Bhutan and Assam at 1,500-1,800 m and on Parasnath hills in Bihar, Pachmarhi in Madhya Pradesh and Mount Abu in Rajasthan. It is commonly known as Semal. The juice of the fruit is used in the treatment of fever, colic coughs and rore throat. al., 2001). Daily. (Jhangar) (Polygonaceae): It belongs to family Polygonaceae. This is a very ornamental plant, especially when the branches are laden with fruits. Arora and Anjula (1996) have given a detailed account Distribution: Throughout India, in areas upto 4,200 m elevation, wild as well as cultivated. The leaves are anti-inflammatory, anodyne, anthelmintic, Uttarakhand State is characterized by a rich diversity of ethnomedicinal plants Wood moderately soft, grayish-brown. useful in vitiated conditions of pitta, peptic ulcer, helminthiasis, dyspepsia, The pressed juice of the petioles is styptic and may be used to arrest arterial of plants of particular region are important tools that may help in understanding Bark is anathematic and used in scrofula and coetaneous troubles (Sharma The berries are mildly laxative and are given to children. with brown or purple; leaflets 40-48 cm., edged with red or purple, all petiolutate, Wild edible plant species used by the indigenous people of Uttarakhand Himalaya: It has been reported that uttarakhand is a huge herb of flora and fauna. The leaves are stimulant, diuretic and antibacterial Pharmaceutical and nutritional companies are aware of the monetary success taking advantage of the more health-seeking consumers and the changing trends resulting in a proliferation of these value-added products aimed at heart health to cancer. It is thorny too. Water cress is reported to be useful in strangury and goiter; the juice is If you find it in your life, you’ll probably find it in or around the same location for the rest of your life. dysentery (Chevallier, 1996). The bark from this plant is used for medical reasons in Tibetan villages, mainly as a renal tonic and an antidiuretic. The stems are recommended in rheumatism. the Western Himalayas. Properties and uses: The grains are sweet, bitter, astringent, cooling, Angelica glauca Edgew. Distribution: Temperate and tropical Himalaya, from Kashmir to Bhutan, Khasia Hills, Assam, Burma-China. strings of wasps and other insects (Govil, 1998). defenses, signal transduction pathways, cell survival-associated gene expression, It belongs to family Dryopteridaceae. The capsules open and shed their seeds chiefly during Jan- March in Western Himalayas. and phytohaemagglutinin, a trypsin inhibitor and presence of amino-acids and Ficus auriculata Lour. The total alkaloid The plant contain: dry matter 85.1; total carbohydrates 64.6; crude fibre 28.4; crude protein 10.9 and ether extraction 0.5%. The list of nutraceuticals being studied is changing continually and reflects ongoing research, market developments and consumer interest. Limb of spathe ovate- lanceolate, incurved, caudate- acuminate, It contains: In order to have scientific knowledge about the nutraceuticals, publics should be educated, where recommended daily doses of these nutraceuticals should be known by each consumer. Dried fruits are particularly high in calcium and iron. It Distribution: Temperate Himalayas from Kashmir to Bhutan, 4,000-11,000 ft., Khasia Hills, 4,000-6,000 ft., Nilgiris Pulneys, Travancore, above 5,000 ft. An evergreen, much- branched tree, up to 14 m in height and 2.4 m in girth, found in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Bhutan and in the hills of Assam and Manipur at altitudes of 1,200-4,000 m. The plant: Green leaves are reported to contain a glucoside, ericolin (arbutin, C12H16O7). Khasia,  Synlet,  Himachal  Pradesh,  Jaintia,  Shimla,  Bengal, Naga, and Lushai hills. Most of the people of this state are dependent on their natural environment and is characterized by a rich diversity of ethno-botanic plant as well as rich heritage of wild edible plants system [8] recorded a total 102 species belonging to 48 families of ethno-medicinal plants from four selected districts of Uttarakhand (Almora, Champawat, Bageshwar and Pithoragarh). given, twice a day for 1-3 weeks in leucorrhoea. The percentage contents of some of the mineral elements in the fruit are phosphorus, 0.026 percent, potassium, 0.475 percent, calcium, 0.061 percent, magnesium, 0.027 percent, and iron, 0.006 percent. The plant is known by multiple names Soh-tyrsim, Dalah esing, Madeilo, etc. a coarse fibre. Almora, Champawat, Bageshwar and Pithoragarh. India has one of the oldest, richest and most diverse cultural traditions associated with the use of medicinal plants in the form of a traditional system of medicine. The tree yields a drupaceous fruit which is one of the tastiest wild fruits of the sub-Himalayan region. of the plant is given as a blood purifier, vermifuge and diuretic. The fruits of grain are a fine blend of sweet and sour and have a very good taste. The rind of daru yields a fast yellow dye, which is used for dyeing cloth and also for making hair dye. Beta-sitosterol, sucrose, glucose and fructose have been identified. There are reports of antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of seabuckthorn based on free radical scavenging activity, inhibition of lipid peroxidation and -cells resulting in decreased blood glucosebprotection of levels. The leaves are used as an emollient Fagopyrum cymosum Trev. Agave Americana Linn. Properties and uses: The roots and bark are useful in vitiated conditions measure. Properties and uses: The leaves are used to cure uterine hemorrhages, alopecia areata, haemorrhoids and congestion of the portal system (Longman, and Caius, 1931). It is commonly known as Lingua. The park in Haldwani, opened June 5, 2020 — World Environment Day — has 40 thematic sections. Young fronds are used as green vegetables Leaf solitary; petiole very stout, green, smooth, often marbled The golden Himalayan raspberry is a large shrub with stout stems that can grow to up to 4.5 meters, or about 12 feet long. chenopodiaceae (Bathua): It belongs to There is vast scope of study o n the medi- cinal mushrooms growing in this region. as well as a rich heritage of wild edible plants system. tuberculosis, hepatosplenomegaly, cough, spermatorrhoea and general debility It is commonly known as Kilmora. and Ayensu, 1985). Alternatively fruit may be processed into pasteurized or sterilized finished products and stored in that form at room temperature. often inflated base, narrowed into a very long filiform tail, base usually ovoid, emaciation, cardiac debility, intermittent fevers, pharyngitis, leprosy, dyspepsia, A native plant to the hills of Uttarakhand and Nepal and also described in the folk lore of Uttarakhand and Nepal. Properties and uses: They are made into curries or jam. It is sometimes used in earache and also as an external stimulant (Burash) (Ericaceae): It belongs to family Ericaceae. Peduncle much shorter The juice also contains 36 mg of vitamin C per 100 ml. The seed oil is applied in rheumatism and gout Flowers are eaten raw or made into juice; to cure They are pedicellate, ebracteate, actinomorphic, cyclic, hermaphrodite, and epigynous. (Machhai/Padya) (Cruciferae): It belongs to family Cruciferae. Pods long, narrow, flat, firm, dehiscent. The seeds are acrid, bitter, anodyne, anti-inflammatory, purgative, antipyretic Bark brown, wood moderately soft, grayish- brown. Wild apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) is one of the most important fruits of mid hills and dry temperate regions of the country. The flowers of the plant are sometimes eaten in central india and Chota Nagpur. (Wild Edible Plants of Uttarakhand) हाँ ये वही पहाड़ है जहां अभी भी नौले हैं, धारे हैं. distributed nearly throughout india, except in very humid or very arid regions Moringa oleifera Lam. Due to the high medicinal values, the leaves and bark of this medicinally important tree are imported and exported. The leaves of the tree are lopped for lopped for fodder in Assam, Distribution: Throughout India, wild, also cultivated. (27), respectively. Near those, new young stalks can be found. (Asolkar et al., 2000). Nutraceuticals are currently receiving recognition as being beneficial in coronary Properties and uses: Roots are used as condiment. Locally the “wild onions” (read really garlics) grow their cloves on the top of the plant, not underground. 5.5; mineral matter 2.2%: Calcium 290, phosphorous 140, iron 4.6 mg/100 g (Minati The the form of medicines (Guerra et al., 2003). Look for a many-branched cactus with broad, flat pads. A et al., 1992). not truncate or disciform; tube of spathe 5-10 cm, striped with purple. plant species of uttarakhand, it is 97 in numbers including Cereals and pseudocereals Today, most human plant food is based on rather limited number of crops, but it is clearly that in many parts of the world the use of wild plant is not negligible. This is a very hardy plant and can grow even on very poor soils. The leaves are rich in vitamin A and C and are considered Locally, it is known by many names such as batangi (Urdu), tangi (Kashmiri), mahal mol (Hindi) and passi (Nepal). Juice extracted by pressing or centrifugal techniques must be stored under refrigeration and requires pasteurization and freezing for long term storage. The roots are reported to possess anti-cancer activity. The present diversity of wild edible plants of Chopta-Mandal indicates a varied and diverse flora which has been used differently by different ethnic groups/local people of the region. and vata, arthritis, burning sensation, constipation, agalactia, strangury, flatulence, strangury, seminal weakness, pharyngopathy, splenopathy, haemorrhoids, ; thiamine, 0.08; riboflavin, 0.16; niacin, 0.8 and ascorbic Distribution: Lower slopes of the Himalayas. In India wild-growing relatives of apricot are also known as chulu, chulli, sahara and zardalu in the local dialect found in different regions of Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh and Ladakh region of Jammu & Kashmir states. The alkaloids present in the plant List of wild edible plants of Uttarakhand Himalayas, Embifilia officinalis (wild aonla) Wild Himalayan Strain, Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L., Elaeagnaceae). This creeper is found across the country and considered as an enemy of its refuge trees. (Bichchhu ghas) (Urticaceae): It belongs to family Urticaceae. district of the Central Himalaya in the state of Uttarakhand (India). Whereas in case of wild edible plant species, there are total number Preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant leaf extract revealed the presence of  alkaloids,  glycosides,  flavonoids,  terpenoids, tannins and reducing sugar but saponin was found absent in the leaf of  Ficus auriculata. … It is a rich source of Vitamin A and E and also of ascorbic acid. The plant can also be used to make a bluish-purple dye. et al., 2010). than the petiole. C (leaves, petioles); carotene, VitB1, Sometimes the nutritional value of traditional benzaldehyde isolated from the plant (Sumathi and Pattabiraman, Properties and uses: It is a shrub whose sap is antiseptic, diaphoretic, The cultivated amla cannot be grown in all places as it is highly susceptible to frost. vegetable (Tiwari et al., 2010b). It is commonly known as Rambans. Sea buckthorn (Hippophae) is a unique medicinal and It is a medium-sized or small deciduous tree or large shrub with 2.5 – 6 m in height. The finished product is called anardana (anar (Hindi)=pomegranate, dana=grain). skin diseases, dysentery, diarrhea, splenomegaly, dyspepsia, lumbago, ophthalmopathy, as a drug is found to be an alternative way to cure the patients and this approach Flowers borne on spurs and each spur usually bear 3 to 11 flowers. It is commoly known as Kilmora. is in practice from the ancient times (Archana et al., Knowledge of mechanical harvesting, and crop management techniques including soil fertility, cultivation techniques, pruning, and pest, disease, and weed controls, and nitrogen-fixing ability are also needed urgently. The fruits which are gusset brown or purplish in colour, are borne in great profusion and are edible, though somewhat insipid.